On this page we can learn three different soil compaction test methods that are specified in BS 1377. Soil compaction is very important step for any structure because if compaction is not done properly. After the soil compaction is complete a sample is taken in order to fulfill the required quantity of total material as required by the testing agency.
Bs 1377 UU test monotonic shear (ASTM D2850, BS 1377:Part 7) Automatic or manual undrained shear stage in compression, with rate of strain and cell pressure input. STRESS PATH MODULE (1) (2) This optional software module is for the automatic or manual control of stress path stages, with independent control of axial and radial stresses. Buy bs 1377-4(1990): 1990 methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes - part 4: compaction-related tests from nsai. British standard BS 1377-4:1990 Part 4 - Compaction-related tests. Free download standard (Pdf file): BS 1377-4-1990 Methods of test for Soils for civil engineering purposes - Part 4 - Compaction-related tests. To see a list of other BS standards on the document library click here. The 4.5 kg rammer method. In this compaction test the mould and the amount of dry soil used is the same as for the 2.5 kg rammer method but a heavier compactive effort is applied to the test sample. The rammer has a mass of 4.5 kg with a free fall of 450 mm above the surface of the soil.
This Part of BS 1377 describes in-situ methods of test on soils for civil engi neering purposes, i.e. Tests made directly on the soil in place as distinct from laboratory tests, described in Parts 2 to 8 of this standard, for which samples first need to be taken.
Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. In construction, this is a significant part of the building process. If performed improperly, settlement of the soil could occur and result in unnecessary maintenance costs or structure failure. Almost all types of building sites and construction projects utilize mechanical compaction techniques.
If the sample is damp, dry it until it becomes friable under a trowel. Drying may be in air or by use of a drying apparatus maintained at a temperature not exceeding 60°C (140°F). Thoroughly break up aggregations in a manner that avoids reducing the natural size of individual particles.
Here we are talking about the three methods that include 2.5 kg rammer method, 4.5 kg rammer method and the vibrating hammer method.
The 2.5 kg rammer method
An air dried representative sample of the soil under test is passed through a 20 mm sieve and 5 kg collected. This soil is then thoroughly mixed with enough water to give a fairly low value of water content. For sands and gravelly soils the commencing value of w should be about 5 per cent but for cohesive soils it should be about 8 to 10 per cent less than the plastic limit of the soil tested.
The soil is then compacted in a metal mould of internal diameter 105 mm using a 2.5 kg rammer, of 50 mm diameter, free falling from 300 mm above the top of the soil, see Fig. 11.1. Compaction is effected in three layers, of approximately equal depth. Each layer is given 27 blows which are spread evenly over the surface of the soil.
The compaction can be considered as satisfactory when the compacted soil is not more than 6 mm above the top of the mould. (Otherwise the test results become inaccurate and should be discarded.) The top of the compacted soil is trimmed level with the top of the mould. The base of the mould is removed and the mould and the test sample it encloses are weighed.
Samples for water content determination are then taken from the top and the base of the soil sample, the rest of the soil being removed from the mould and broken down and mixed with the remainder of the original sample that passed the 20 mm sieve. A suitable increment of water (to give some 2 per cent increase in water content) is thoroughly mixed into the soil and the compaction is repeated. The test should involve not less then five sets of compaction but it is usually continued until the weight of the wet soil in the mould passes some maximum value and begins to decrease.
Sp0410x5025 slide valve. Eventually, when the test has been completed, the values of water content corresponding to each volume of compacted soil are determined and it becomes possible to plot the dry density to moisture content relationship.
The 4.5 kg rammer method
In this compaction test the mould and the amount of dry soil used is the same as for the 2.5 kg rammer method but a heavier compactive effort is applied to the test sample. The rammer has a mass of 4.5 kg with a free fall of 450 mm above the surface of the soil. The number of blows per layer remains the same, 27, but the number of layers compacted is increased to five.
The vibrating hammer method
Bs 1377 Part 4 Pdf Compressor
It is possible to obtain the dry density/water content relationship for a granular soil with the use of a heavy electric vibrating hammer, such as the Kango. A suitable hammer, according to BS 1377, would have a frequency between 25 and 45 Hz, and a power consumption of 600 to 750 W: it should be in good condition and have been correctly maintained.